Book review: Three Themed Anthologies

th_8d08406c8df1fa0ceb5e75df46389a5a_1357693050Brave_New_Worlds_2ndEdI review three anthologies edited by John Joseph Adams on my book review website, Books Worth Reading. Have you been wanting to try a new genre: dystopia, post-apocalypse, or multiverse? A well-edited anthology can be a great introduction to a genre as well as a good way to discover new writers.

2012: The Next Doomsday

National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City...

Image via Wikipedia

A recent re-watching of the movie 2012 left me wanting to delve more into this propitious date. Next year — specifically December 21, 2012 — has been named as the next date of the apocalypse, or perhaps a worldwide spiritual awakening. NASA and CERN have both stated that the world definitely won’t end in 2012, but what do they know?

The source of this particular apocalyptic prophecy is the ancient Mayans. On December 21, 2012, the 5,125-year-long cycle in the Mayan calendar known as the Long Count comes to a close. The Mayans used a cyclic calendar, like we do. When it comes to the end of a cycle, the calendar flips over and begins again. It doesn’t stop, and archaeologists can find no evidence suggesting that the Mayans believed the world would end on that date, or that anything at all momentous would happen.

But modern-day spiritualists, prophesiers and doomsayers have latched onto the end of the Mayan’s calendar cycle as significant, imbuing the Mayans with greater predictive and scientific powers than they possessed. The ancient Mayan civilization, which reached its height between 25AD and 900AD, was a highly advanced one, though. It had the only known written language of the pre-Columbian Americas and had made significant achievements in art, architecture, mathematics and astronomy.

The Mayan civilization eventually collapsed, although it did not disappear; there are Mayans living in Central America and Mexico today. However, the Maya had abandoned their great cities by the 10th century. There is no universally accepted theory for why this collapse happened, although the cause is likely environmental, such as a decades-long drought or other climate change. Other factors, such as foreign invasion or internal revolt, may have played a part. The last independent Mayan city-state was conquered by the Spanish in 1697. If only the Mayans had been able to predict their own collapse or the Spanish colonization, that would have been much more relevant to their world than what may happen centuries in the future.

We humans routinely assign doomsday to a specific date. The turning of the millennium always invites such predictions, and most of us can remember the hype that built up around Y2K. Similar dire predictions were made when the year 1000 was reached. Other dates have also taken on significance for one reason or another, but so far, doomsday hasn’t come.

This time, the predictions focus on several unlikely scenarios. The Earth may collide with a passing planet or black hole. The planets in the solar system may align, causing a shift in the Earth’s polar axis. Or unusual solar activity may cause worldwide havoc. Simple astronomical observation can (and has) refute all of these predictions.

In the 1970s-1990s, the end of the Mayan Long Count was actually predicted to be a positive event, a transition from one world age to another, and therefore a time for transformation and spiritual growth. I guess it all depends on whether your spiritual glass is half-empty or half-full. I predict that we’ll muddle on, much as we always have, and NASA backs me up on that.

Personally, I think the 2012 hoopla should have ended with Roland Emmerich’s highly improbable movie. No one else, not even a rogue planet or black hole, would destroy the Earth with such glee.

We have to keep in mind that calendars, as prophetic as they may seem, are merely human inventions. The universe is not obligated to live by them or provide an apocalypse on our timetable. Just as our calendar begins with a date that is culturally significant to us — the birth of Jesus Christ — so the Mayan calendar began with a significant date for them — the creation of the present world order. However, these dates are significant only to people, not to planets or the sun, for which 5,125 years is but a blip.

Here is a summary of the 2012 predictions and why they won’t come true from Sky & Telescope magazine (PDF).

Apocalypse as Revelation: Will You Look Away?

Author Junot Díaz has a powerful essay in Boston Review: Apocalypse (Haiti, Japan, earthquake, tsunami).

Díaz analyzes “mini-apocalypses,” in particular, the Haitian earthquake, which was certainly apocalyptic for the country of Haiti. He seizes upon the definition of apocalypse as a revelation. When things fall apart, he argues, the aspects of society that we normally try to hide are exposed. What comes to light are inequalities, injustices, patterns of corruption. An apocalypse can thus be a cleansing, transformative event, if allowed. “In a dark time, the eye begins to see.” Becoming “ruin-readers,” as Díaz calls this process, may save our lives.

Hurricane Katrina, another mini-apocalypse, revealed America’s Third World. The Haitian earthquake revealed a place desperate beyond imagining. Yet what the apocalypse reveals, we naturally seek to evade. We blame the disaster on God or nature or the victims themselves. Díaz argues that natural disasters are often actually social disasters. When our actions devastate the natural world, we significantly reduce our protection from such natural disasters as tsunamis and hurricanes. Are we transforming our planet into Haiti? Both Díaz and I fear that we are.

Díaz hopes that it will not take many more such mini-apocalypses for us to see and then, more crucially, to act. I don’t feel so optimistic. Haiti, like Katrina and the Asian tsunami, has largely disappeared from the public discourse. Many powerful and ordinary people alike refuse to acknowledge that climate change is real, it is caused by human activity, and it has the potential to be the greatest social natural disaster of all. Let’s hope that our situation is not fiction come to fruition: that those who finally see are a small band of survivors after it’s far too late to do anything to avert or mitigate the catastrophe.

A helpful guide to the apocalypse…

Note: I originally posted this somewhere else, but I thought it was cute, so I’m reposting it here.

With so many ways to die out, it’s a wonder our species can get out bed in the morning. Yet, despite all odds, the sun rises each day, and the planet continues in its natural course. How long can this go on?

While there are unlimited scenarios for complete annihilation of the species, here are the top 50, ranked in order of likeliness to happen. This list will be adjusted as circumstances warrant.

  1. Robot uprising
  2. Nuclear war started by self-aware computers
  3. Nuclear war started by unaware humans
  4. Global warming
  5. Another ice age
  6. Mother Nature’s revenge
  7. Overpopulation
  8. Soylent green is people!
  9. We’re no longer able to have babies
  10. Stupid people breeding exponentially more than smart people
  11. All the men die out (hey, maybe that one wouldn’t be so bad)
  12. The Mayan calendar said so
  13. Economic downturn
  14. Genetically engineered superflu
  15. Swine flu
  16. Bird flu
  17. Some other disease, possibly alien in origin
  18. Aliens themselves, blowing the shit out of us
  19. Some vaguely understood alien-government conspiracy involving pod people
  20. The terrorists win
  21. Meteor strike
  22. Comet passes by real close
  23. The sun blows up and/or goes out
  24. Super-volcanoes
  25. Zombies
  26. Vampire-zombies
  27. Peak oil
  28. Y2K
  29. Twitter
  30. Mass suicidal impulse
  31. The series finale of Lost erases all will to go on living
  32. Everybody gets really fat
  33. We run out of food
  34. We run out of water
  35. The antichrist returns and hell reigns on earth
  36. A big-ass flood
  37. A big-ass fire
  38. Some other awful thing dreamed up by a vengeful, pissed-off god
  39. Ancient monsters rise up from deep inside the earth to devour us all
  40. Ancient monsters come from another dimension to devour us all
  41. Rip in the space-time continuum
  42. Singularity appears deep inside the earth
  43. Large Hadron Collider
  44. Someone invents time travel and whoops! they changed the future
  45. Some other scientific experiment goes horribly awry
  46. Mad scientist thinks he’s doing us a favor
  47. Apes get really smart and really mad
  48. Man-eating plants
  49. Everyone goes blind at the same time!
  50. It was all a dream.